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Countryside Scenery

RURAL VS URBAN PERSPECTIVE

RURAL AREAS 

Rural areas tend to receive low levels of rainfall, which affects the crop growth in the areas. When there is a decrease in food supply, it means that students are not provided with a balanced diet. This could decrease their concentration spans, which limits the information that they can retain thus decreasing their chances of attaining high levels of educational achievement. Due to poverty as well, households would need to pay for food rather than education and so by the time they are able to afford good food, there is no money left for education. (MOYO, 2013)

 

Additionally, there is the transport issue. In urban areas, most people are able to afford school transport or they have the option to reside near the school, which benefits them majorly. In rural areas however, this is not the case. Children have to walk very long distances in order to get to school. By this time, they are already late, fatigued and hungry and  are not able to concentrate as much in class. 

Moreover, there are very strict requirements for the parents and children to meet. For example, suspension from lessons if school fees are not paid or if they are in the wrong uniform etc. This causes less children to attend school due to financial issues. Also, some of the children in rural areas have jobs at such young ages in order to help their parents sustain the families. Due to this, they would not be able to balance school work and working which therefore limits their level of educational achievement. 

Tshazi Secondary School, in the rural area of Zimbabwe,is situated in a region, which has long been designated as a drought-prone area.Sometimes, in order to fulfill their basic food needs, students are forced to accept menial jobs.Students who work such jobs may forfeit some of their education in order to eat and may miss out on some instructional time. This gravely jeopardizes their ability to succeed in school (MOYO, 2013).

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URBAN AREAS

Poverty does not only roam in the rural areas, there is still a lot of poverty in urban areas around the world. According to recent data, there may be different relationships between family income and a child's development in urban, suburban, and rural locations. Portia Miller, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal, and Claude Messan Setodji examined a nationally representative sample of young children and discovered that for disadvantaged kids, economic disparities in kindergarten reading and math skills were greatest in large urban cities, with roughly 0.15 standard deviations (SD) per $10,000 increase in income, and smallest in rural areas, with 0.05 SD (2013). In a different study utilizing similar techniques and nationally representative data on older children, the relationship between family income and eighth-grade achievement was stronger in urban centers and weaker in suburban and rural areas (Miller and Votruba-Drzal 2015). Although these research showed that income-achievement inequalities varied by urbanity, they failed to pinpoint the mechanisms that might contribute to variations in children's development. (Miller, Votruba-Drzal and Coley, 2019)

 

To conclude this, Even though there is poverty in both urban and rural areas, the poverty in rural areas seems to be much worse. This therefore causes low educational attainment from children in rural areas. To some extent, this leads to creation of a poverty trap because generations will not be able to get out of poverty if there is continuous low educational achievement. 

References

  • MOYO, W. (2013). CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS: CASE OF TSHAZI SECONDARY SCHOOL IN INSIZA DISTRICT. [online] Asian Economic and Social Society, p.10. Available at: https://archive.aessweb.com/index.php/5007/article/download/2568/3905 [Accessed 3 Mar. 2023].

  • Miller, Votruba-Drzal and Coley (2019). Poverty and Academic Achievement Across the Urban to Rural Landscape: Associations with Community Resources and Stressors. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, [online] 5(2), p.106. doi:https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2019.5.2.06.

  • ‌Tine, M. (2017). Growing up in Rural vs. Urban Poverty: Contextual, Academic, and Cognitive Differences. Poverty, Inequality and Policy. [online] doi:https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.68581.

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