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Education and Socioeconomic Status

SES includes not only income but also educational attainment, financial security, and subjective evaluations of social position and social class.


Socioeconomic status can include aspects of quality of life as well as the opportunities and privileges available to people in society. 

Poverty, in particular, is not a single issue, but rather a collection of physical and emotional pressures. 


Furthermore, SES is a constant and reliable predictor of a wide range of life outcomes, including physical and psychological health.


As a result, SES is applicable to all areas of behavioural and social science, including study, practice, education, and advocacy.

SES and educational issues



SES and Educational Issues

According to research, children from low-income households and communities develop academic skills more slowly than children from higher-income families and communities (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, & Maczuga, 2009). Low SES in childhood, for example, is associated with poor cognitive development, language, memory, socioemotional processing, and, as a result, poor income and health in adulthood. School systems in low-income neighbourhoods are frequently underfunded, significantly impacting kids' academic progress and outcom-es (Aikens & Barbarin, 2008). Inadequate education and rising dropout rates have a negative impact on children's academic achievement, prolonging the community's low socioeconomic level. Improving school systems and early intervention programs may assist to lower some of these risk variables; thus, more research on the relationship between SES and education is required.

SES and academic achievement


  • Lower SES groups are associated with lower academic success and slower rates of academic improvement, according to research.

  • Children from low-income families start high school with literacy abilities that are five years behind those of high-income pupils (Reardon, Valentino, Kalogrides, Shores, & Greenberg, 2013).

  • In 2014, the high school dropout rate among people aged 16 to 24 was higher in low-income families (11.6 percent) than in high-income families (2.8 percent; National Centre for Education Statistics, 2014).

  • Low-income students have a considerably lower success rate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical subjects than students who do not come from marginalized families (Doerschuk et al., 2016).

  • According to the United States Census Bureau (2014), people in the top family income quartile are eight times more likely than people in the worst family income quartile to have a bachelor's degree by the age of 24.



Of those enrolled in elementary and secondary schools from the USA , 5.7 million (10%) were attending private schools. Over 85% of the adult population have completed high school and 27% have received a bachelor's degree or higher. 



Out of all children in Kenya, about 85% attend primary school. 75% of those who complete primary education will proceed to secondary schools and 60% of those who complete secondary school will proceed to institutions of a higher level of education, including business and vocational institutions, national polytechnics, public and private universities within the country. Over 950,000 Kenyans have furthered their education abroad with a majority of graduates primarily from India, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Russia, and Uganda.

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